MABEL Background

The MABEL battery was developed over three years (2008 – 2011) as part of a large-scale, longitudinal, cross-linguistic study of early literacy development in English, French, Spanish, Czech and Slovak, within ELDEL (Enhancing Literacy Development in European Languages). The project was funded by  Marie Curie – Initial Training Network, Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement no. 215961. The main goal of the project was to elucidate the core cognitive, linguistic, and environmental predictors of children’s literacy development from kindergarten to the second grade.  Five parallel studies were conducted, one in each country.  Currently, test materials are available in English, Spanish, Czech and Slovak, with French materials forthcoming.  In addition, a Welsh language version of the battery has since been developed.

MABEL Contents

MABEL contains the 14 most important and sensitive assessments of early literacy, as validated in each language of the ELDEL project. A unique feature of the MABEL battery is that each test was created to be parallel (directly comparable) across languages.  The skills assessed are: letter knowledge, phoneme awareness, and rapid naming, as well as reading and spelling.

Test Names

Letter Knowledge – Naming

Letter Knowledge – Writing

One Minute Word Reading

One Minute Nonword Reading

Spelling Words

Spelling Nonwords

Phoneme Isolation

Phoneme Blending

Phoneme Deletion

Picture-Word Matching

RAN – Colours

RAN – Objects

RAN – Digits

RAN – Letters

To date, four major papers have been published, in which these tests were used in cross-linguistic comparisons (Caravolas et al., 2012; 2013; 2017; submitted).

In each language, the battery can be accessed, after registration, for downloading for paper and pencil administration, and/or for computer assisted administration.

How to navigate

Under the MABEL TESTS tab, you can find various language versions of the battery. These can be accessed by clicking on the flag of the language you wish to use. In order to access these materials, please go to the SIGN IN tab and register to become a subscribed MABEL test user.


The team collaborating on the original ELDEL Work Package (WP1) that gave rise to the MABEL test battery included Senior Scientists Markéta Caravolas (Project Coordinator), Denis Alamargot, Sylvia Defior, Michel Fayol, Charles Hulme, Marína Mikulajová, Gabriela Seidlová Málková; Experienced Researcher Petroula Mousikou, Early Stage Researchers Corina Effrim, Miroslav Litavsky, Eduardo Onochie, Naymé Salas, Miroslava Schöffelová.


Caravolas, M.; Lervåg, A.; Mikulajová, M., Defior, S.; Seidlová Málková, G.; & Hulme, C. (submitted). A cross-linguistic, longitudinal study of the foundations of decoding and reading comprehension ability.

Caravolas, M. (2017). Growth of Word and Pseudoword Reading Efficiency in Alphabetic Orthographies: Impact of Consistency. Journal of Learning Disabilities, https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219417718197

Caravolas, M.; Lervåg, A.; Defior, S.; Seidlová Málková, G.; & Hulme, C. (2013) Different patterns,but equivalent predictors, of growth in reading in consistent and inconsistent orthographies. Psychological Science, 24, 1398-1407. (Available online)

Caravolas, M.; Lervåg, A.; Mousikou, P.; Efrim, C.; Litavsky, M.; Onochie-Quintanilla, E.; Salas, N.; Schöffelová, M.; Defior, S.; Mikulajová, M.; Seidlová-Málková G.; & Hulme, C. (2012) Common patterns of prediction of literacy development in different alphabetic orthographies. Psychological Science, 23(6), 678-686. (Available online)